Stonewall Jackson was born in Clarksburg (then Virginia), West Virginia, on January 21, 1824. A proficient military tactician, he served as a Confederate general under Robert E. Lee in the American Civil War, directing troops at Manassas, Antietam and Fredericksburg. Jackson lost an arm and expired after he was inadvertently shot by Confederate troops in the Battle of Chancellorsville. His dad, a lawyer named Jonathan Jackson, and his mom, Julia Beckwith Neale, had four kids. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson was the third produced.
When Jackson was only 2 years old, his dad and his older sister, Elizabeth, were killed by typhoid fever. As a youthful widow, Stonewall Jackson’s mom struggled to make ends meet. In 1830 Julia remarried to Blake Woodson. When the youthful Jackson and his sibs butted heads using their new stepfather, they were sent to live with relatives in Jackson’s Mill, Virginia (now West Virginia). In 1831, Jackson lost his mom to complications during childbirth. The baby, Jackson’s half brother William Wirt Woodson, survived, but would later die of tuberculosis in 1841. Jackson spent the remainder of his youth living with his dad’s brothers.
After attending local schools, in 1842 Jackson registered in the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. He was accepted just after his congressional district’s first pick removed his application a day after school began. Although he was older than most of his classmates, Jackson at first fought terribly with his class load. To create things worse, his fellow pupils frequently teased him about his poor family and moderate instruction. Luckily, the difficulty fueled Jackson’s decision to be successful.
In Mexico he joined the 1st U.S. Artillery as a 2nd lieutenant. Jackson immediately demonstrated his bravery and resilience on the field, serving with distinction under General Winfield Scott. Jackson participated in the Siege of Veracruz, as well as the battles of Contreras, Chapultepec and Mexico City. From time the Mexican-American War ended in 1846, Jackson were promoted to the rank of brevet major and was considered a war hero. Following the war, he continued to serve in the military in Ny and Florida.
At VMI, Jackson served as professor of natural and experimental philosophy along with of artillery approaches. Jackson’s philosophy syllabus was composed of subjects similar to all those covered in the current school physics classes. His courses additionally covered astronomy, acoustics as well as other science areas.
As a professor, Jackson’s cold manner and odd quirks made him unpopular among his pupils. Grappling with hypochondria, the false belief that something was physically wrong with him, Jackson kept one arm lifted while teaching, believing it’d conceal a nonexistent unevenness in the amount of his extremities. Although his pupils made fun of his eccentricities, Jackson was generally accepted as a successful professor of artillery approaches.
In July 1857, Jackson remarried to Mary Anna Morrison. In April 1859, Jackson and his second wife had a daughter. Tragically, the baby died within significantly less than a month of her delivery. In 1862 Jackson’s wife had another daughter, whom they named Julia, after Jackson’s mom. Between late 1860 and early 1861, several Southern U.S. states declared their autonomy and seceded from the Union. In the beginning it was Jackson’s want that Virginia, afterward his home state, would remain in the Union.
On April 21, 1861, Jackson was ordered to VMI, where he was put in command of the VMI Corps of Cadets. At that time, the cadets were acting as drillmasters, training new recruits to fight in the Civil War. Later, the nickname stuck, and Jackson was promoted to major general because of his bravery and quick thinking on the battle field.
In the springtime of another year, Jackson started the Valley of Virginia, or Shenandoah Valley, Effort. He started the effort by securing western Virginia against the Union Army’s invasion. After directing the Confederate Army to a number of successes, Jackson was ordered to join General Robert E. Lee’s army in 1862. Joining Lee in the Peninsula, Jackson continued to fight in defense of Virginia.
From June 15 to July 1, 1862, Jackson presented uncharacteristically poor leadership while attempting to protect Virginia’s capital city of Richmond against General George McClellan’s Union troops. In this time, dubbed the Seven Days Battles, Jackson did, however, manage to redeem himself with his fast-moving “foot cavalry” maneuvers in the battle of Cedar Mountain.
This afforded Confederate General James Longstreet the chance to establish a missile assault from the Union Army, finally driving Pope’s forces to pull away. Against terrible odds, Jackson also was able to hold his Confederate troops in defensive position throughout the bloody battle of Antietam, until Lee ordered his Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw back over the Potomac River.
After being promoted to lieutenant general, Jackson took command of the 2nd corps, leading them to crucial victory in the Battle of Fredericksburg. Jackson reached an entirely new degree of succeeding in the Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863, when he attacked General John Hooker’s Army of the Potomac from the back. The strike created a lot of casualties that, within several days, Hooker had no option however to remove his troops.
On May 2, 1863, Jackson was accidentally shot by friendly fire in the 18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment. In a closeby field hospital, Jackson’s arm was amputated. On May 4, Jackson was carried to another field hospital, in Guinea Station, Virginia. He died there of complications on May 10, 1863, in the age of 39, after uttering the last words, “let’s cross over the river and rest beneath the shade of trees.”