Joining the theological principles of religion using the philosophical principles of reason, he ranked among the most powerful thinkers of medieval Scholasticism. An ability of the Roman Catholic Church as well as a prolific writer, Aquinas expired on March 7, 1274, in the Cistercian monastery of Fossanova, near Terracina, Latium, Papal States, Italy. Thomas had eight siblings, and was the youngest kid. His mom, Theodora, was countess of Teano. In Wisdom 8:19, St. Thomas Aquinas is described as “a witty kid” who “had received a great soul.” At Monte Cassino, the quizzical youthful lad repeatedly presented the question, “What’s God?” to his benefactors. St. Thomas Aquinas stayed at the monastery until he was 13 years old, when the political climate induced him to return to Naples.
St. Thomas Aquinas spent the next five years finishing his primary education at a Benedictine house in Naples. During those years, he analyzed Aristotle’s work, which would later become an important launching point for St. Thomas Aquinas’s own exploration of philosophy. In the Benedictine house, that was strongly affiliated with all the University of Naples, Thomas also developed an interest in more modern monastic orders. He was especially drawn to all those that highlighted a life of religious service, in comparison together with the more conventional perspectives and sheltered lifestyle he had found in the Abbey of Monte Cassino.
Circa 1239, St. Thomas Aquinas started attending the University of Naples. In 1243, he covertly joined an order of Dominican monks, receiving the custom in 1244. When his family found out, they felt so betrayed that he’d turned his back on the principles to which they subscribed which they chose to kidnap him. Thomas’s family held him prisoner for a whole year, imprisoned in the fort of San Giovanni at Rocca Secca. In this period, they tried to deprogram Thomas of his new beliefs. Thomas held fast to the thoughts he’d learned at university, nevertheless, and went back to the Dominican order following his release in 1245.
He was ordained in Cologne, Germany, in 1250, and went to teach theology in the University of Paris. Beneath the tutelage of St. Albert the Great, St. Thomas Aquinas later earned his doctorate in theology. Consistent with all the sacred hermit’s forecast, Thomas demonstrated an exemplary scholar, though, paradoxically, his modesty occasionally led his classmates to misperceive him as dimwitted. After finishing his schooling, St. Thomas Aquinas committed himself to a life of traveling, writing, teaching, public speaking and preaching. Spiritual associations and universities equally yearned to reap the benefits of the wisdom of “The Christian Apostle.”
In the vanguard of medieval idea was a challenge to accommodate the connection between theology (beliefs) and philosophy (rationale). Individuals were at odds concerning the best way to combine the knowledge they got through disclosure with all the data they found naturally using their thoughts as well as their perceptions. Based on Averroes’s “theory of the double truth,” the two kinds of knowledge were in direct opposition to every other. St. Thomas Aquinas’s ground-breaking views rejected Averroes’s theory, claiming that “both types of knowledge ultimately come from God” and were so harmonious. Not only were they harmonious, in accordance with Thomas’s political orientation, they are able to work in collaboration: He believed that disclosure could direct rationale preventing it from making errors, while reason could clarify and demystify religion. St. Thomas Aquinas’s work goes on to discuss religion and reason’s functions in both perceiving and establishing the existence of God.
Subsequent to defending people’s capacity to naturally perceive evidence of God, Thomas also handled the challenge of protecting God’s persona as an all powerful being. St. Thomas Aquinas also distinctively addressed proper social behavior toward God. In thus doing, he gave his thoughts a modern-day some would say classic regular circumstance. Thomas considered the laws of the state were, actually, a natural product of human nature, and were vital to social welfare. By abiding by the societal laws of the state, individuals could earn eternal salvation of the souls in the afterlife, he purported. St. Thomas Aquinas identified three kinds of laws: natural, positive and perpetual. According to his treatise, natural law prompts man to act in accordance with reaching his aims and regulates guy’s sense of right and wrong; favorable law is the law of the state, or authorities, and ought to stay a symptom of natural law; and everlasting law, in case of reasonable beings, depends on motive and is put into actions through free will, which likewise works toward the achievement of man’s religious aims.
Uniting conventional principles of theology with modern philosophic idea, St. Thomas Aquinas’s treatises touched upon the questions and challenges of medieval intellectuals, church authorities and regular people alike. Possibly that is exactly what indicated them as unrivaled in their own philosophical sway at that time, and describes why they might continue to serve as a building block for modern idea garnering answers from theologians, philosophers, critics and believers then.
A prolific writer, St. Thomas Aquinas written close to 60 known works ranging in length from short to tome-like. Handwritten duplicates of his works were distributed to libraries across Europe. His philosophical and theological writings crossed a broad spectrum of issues, including comments on the Bible and discussions of Aristotle’s writings on natural philosophy.
Throughout that span, he also composed De ente et essentia, or On Being and Essence, for the Dominican monks in Paris. Soon after his departure, St. Thomas Aquinas’s theological and philosophical writings climbed to great public acclaim and fortified a strong following among the Dominicans. Universities, seminaries and schools came to replace Lombard’s Four Books of Sentences with Summa Theologica as the top theology textbook.
In June 1272, St. Thomas Aquinas consented to go to Naples and begin a theological studies program for the Dominican house neighboring the university. While he was still composing prolifically, his works started to suffer in quality. When St. Thomas Aquinas’s confessor, Father Reginald of Piperno, encouraged him to keep writing, he responded, “I can do no more. Such secrets are disclosed to me that all I ‘ve written now seems to be of little worth.” St. Thomas Aquinas never wrote again.
On the way, he fell ill in the Cistercian monastery of Fossanova, Italy. The monks needed St. Thomas Aquinas to stay at the citadel, but, feeling that his departure was close, Thomas preferred to remain at the monastery, saying, “If the Lord wants to take me away, it’s better that I be discovered in a spiritual house than in the home of a layperson.” On his deathbed, St. Thomas Aquinas voiced his last words to the Cistercian monks who’d so graciously attended him: “This is my rest forever and ever: Here will I live for I ‘ve selected it.” (Psalm 131:14) Frequently called “The Universal Teacher,” St. Thomas Aquinas expired at the monastery of Fossanova on March 7, 1274. He was canonized by Pope John XXII in 1323.