Nixon ran for president in 1960 but lost to magnetic Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy. Undeterred, Nixon return to the race eight years after and won the White House with a strong margin. In 1974, he resigned rather than be impeached for covering up illegal actions of party members in the Watergate matter. He expired on April 22, 1994, at age 81, in Nyc.
His dad was a service station owner and grocer, who also possessed a little lemon farm in Yorba Linda. His mom proved to be a Quaker who used a powerful influence on her son. Richard Nixon’s early life was difficult, as he qualified by saying, “We were inferior, but the glory of it was we did not understand it.” The family experienced disaster twice early in Richard’s life: His younger brother died in 1925 after a brief sickness, as well as in 1933, his older brother, whom he greatly respected, died of tuberculosis.
Richard Nixon attended Fullerton High School but after transferred to Whittier High School, where he ran for student body president (but lost to some popular pupil). Upon graduation from Whittier in 1934, Nixon received a complete scholarship to Duke University Law School in Durham, N.C. After graduation, Nixon returned to town of Whittier to practice law at Kroop & Bewley. He soon met Thelma Catherine (“Pat”) Ryan, a teacher and amateur performer, following the two were cast in the exact same play in a local community theatre.
Serving as an aviation earth officer in the Pacific, Nixon saw no fight, however he returned to America with two service stars and many commendations. He eventually climbed to the position of lieutenant commander before resigning his commission in January 1946.
While many considered Hiss, Nixon took the claims that Hiss was spying for the Soviet Union to heart. Nixon brought Hiss to the witness stand, and under sticking cross examination, Hiss acknowledged he had understood Chambers, but under another name.
She was an outspoken opponent of the anti Communist panic as well as the activities of HUAC. Using his previous (successful) campaign strategies, Nixon’s campaign staff given out flyers on pink paper unfairly distorting Douglas’s voting record as left wing. For his efforts, The Independent Review, a little Southern California paper, nicknamed Nixon “Tricky Dick,” a derogatory nickname that will stay with him for the remainder of the life.
Richard Nixon’s fervent anti Communist standing earned him the notice of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Republican Party, who considered he could bring useful support in the West. And in the Republican convention in 1952, Nixon won the nomination as vice president.
Between 1955 and 1957, Eisenhower suffered a number of illnesses, including a heart attack as well as a stroke. Although Nixon held small proper power as vice president, possibly from necessity, he enlarged the office to an important and outstanding place during his two periods. As president of the Senate, he helped ensure the passage of Eisenhower approved bills, including the 1957 Civil Rights Bill. And while the president was incapacitated, Nixon was called on to chair several high level assemblies, though actual power lay in a detailed group of Eisenhower advisors. The health panics prompted Eisenhower to formalize an arrangement with Nixon on the powers and duties of the vice president in case of presidential incapacity; the deal was accepted by later governments before the adoption of the 25th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1967.
On one excursion go Caracas, Venezuela, Nixon’s motorcade was attacked by anti-American protesters, who pelted his limo with rocks and bottles. Nixon came out unscathed and stayed composed and collected throughout the event. In July 1959, Nixon was sent by President Eisenhower to Moscow for the launch of the American National Exhibition. On July 24, while touring the displays with Soviet General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, Nixon ended in a model of an American kitchen and participated Khrushchev in an impromptu discussion. In a friendly yet driven manner, both men claimed the virtues of capitalism and communism, respectively, as it impacted the typical American and Soviet housewife. While the exchange (after dubbed the “Kitchen Debate”) had little impact on the U.S./Soviet competition, Nixon gained popularity for standing up to the “Soviet bully,” as Khrushchev was occasionally qualified, and significantly enhanced his opportunities for receiving the Republican presidential nomination in 1960.
The 1960 presidential campaign proved to be historical in using tv for ads, news interviews and policy debates, something which would play right into Kennedy’s youthful hands. Throughout the procedure, he was recuperating from the flu and appeared tired, and then when he arrived in the TV studio, Nixon decided to wear small TV make-up, worrying the press would accuse him of trying to upstage Kennedy’s tan, clear appearance. Though he’d shaved, Nixon’s “five o’clock shadow” appeared through the cameras, and his grey suit blended into the studio’s grey backdrop in contrast to Kennedy’s tailored dark suit. Additionally, Nixon was still sweating out his sickness, and his perspiration under the hot studio lights was picked up by the cameras in closeups as he replied to questions. In a nutshell, he never seemed half as healthy, youthful or energetic as Kennedy. In to reveal the ability of the newest visual medium, post-debate polls suggested that while many TV viewers considered Kennedy had won the arguments, radio listeners suggested they thought Nixon had won.
In November 1960, Richard Nixon narrowly lost the presidential election, by just 120,000 votes. The Electoral College revealed a broader success for Kennedy, who received 303 votes to Nixon’s 219. Though there have been some charges of voter fraud in Texas and Illinois and legal documents were filed, following court rulings revealed that Kennedy had a larger amount of electoral votes even after recounts. Not planning to cause a Constitutional crisis, Nixon blocked additional investigations, after receiving compliments because of his dignity and professionalism in the face of defeat and misgiving that potential voter fraud had cost him the presidency.
Following the election, Nixon returned along with his family to California, where he practiced law and composed a novel, Six Crises, which recorded his political life as a representative, senator and vice president. In 1962, various Republican leaders supported Nixon to run against incumbent Democratic Governor Pat Brown. Nixon was at first unwilling to enter another political conflict so shortly after his disappointing defeat to Kennedy, but finally he chose to run. Others believed he simply was not excited enough. He lost to Brown with a considerable margin, and several political pros qualified the defeat as the conclusion of Richard Nixon’s political career. He himself said as much, blaming the media because of his defeat and lamenting, “You will not have Nixon to kick around anymore…”
Yet, Nixon agonized over whether to reenter politics and go for another run in the presidency. He consulted friends and honored leaders including the Reverend Billy Graham for guidance. Ultimately, he officially declared his candidacy for president of America on February 1, 1968. Nixon’s campaign received an unexpected boost when on March 31, incumbent President Lyndon Johnson declared he wouldn’t seek another term.
By 1968, the country was openly fighting within the war in Vietnam, not only on college campuses but in mainstream media. In February, newscaster Walter Cronkite took an almost unprecedented (for him) place, offering comments on his recent visit to Vietnam, saying that he believed success had not been possible and the war would end in a stalemate. President Lyndon Johnson lamented, “If I Have lost Cronkite, I Have lost the country.” As the antiwar demonstration continued, Nixon’s campaign remained over the fray, depicting him as a figure of equilibrium and appealing to what he referred to as the “quiet majority” of social conservatives who were the constant basis of the American people.
In a three way race between Nixon, Hubert Humphrey and unbiased candidate George Wallace, Nixon won the election by almost 500,000 votes. He was sworn in as the 37th president of America on January 20, 1969.
Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck once called politics “the art of the potential.” Nixon became well-versed in walking a narrow line, as, in a particular problem, he needed to appease the Southern associates in his election coalition and address Court-ordered busing to lessen segregation. He offered a practical alternative he called “New Federalism”: locally managed desegregation. Across the South, the Nixon government created biracial committees to plan and execute school desegregation.
As president, Nixon also raised the variety of female appointments in his government, despite resistance from many in his government. He created a Presidential Task Force on Women’s Rights, requested the Department of Justice bring sex-discrimination suits against obvious violators and ordered the Department of Labor to incorporate gender discrimination guidelines to any or all national contracts.
However initially not showing much interest in environmental issues, after the 1970 Earth Day, with numerous protests all over the country, President Nixon felt a political opportunity along with a demand. He pushed for the Clean Air Act of 1970 and created two new bureaus, the Department of Natural Resources as well as the Environmental Protection Agency. Keeping true to his New Federalism principles of less government and financial responsibility, Nixon insisted that all environmental propositions satisfy the price-benefit standards of the Office of Management and Budget. In 1972, he vetoed the Clean Water Act (which he usually supported) because Congress had fostered its price to $18 billion. Congress overrode his veto, as well as in retaliation, Nixon used his presidential powers to impound half the cash.
Richard Nixon regularly assumed a position of confrontation rather than of conciliation and compromise. In his dream to push through his plan, he sought to consolidate power within the presidency and took the approach the executive branch was exempt from most of the checks and balances demanded by the Constitution. This approach would later turn on him during the Watergate scandal.
His government successfully negotiated the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT), designed to discourage the Soviet Union from launching a first strike. Nixon also reestablished American influence in the Middle East and demanded allies to take more responsibility for his or her particular defense.
Together with the help of his excellent but taciturn national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, Nixon could reach dtente with China as well as the Soviet Union, playing one off against the other. Because the mid-1960s, tensions between China and its own principal ally, the USSR, had raised, causing a breach within their relationship by 1969. Nixon felt a chance to transfer the Cold War balance of power toward the West, and he sent secret messages to Chinese officials to start a dialogue.
In December 1970, Nixon reduced trade restrictions against China, as well as in 1971, Chinese officials encouraged the American table tennis team to China to get a demonstration/contest, after dubbed “ping pong diplomacy.” Subsequently, in February 1972, President Nixon and his wife, Pat, traveled to China, where he participated in direct discussions with Mao Zedong, the Chinese leader. The visit ushered in a fresh age of Chinese American relationships and forced the Soviet Union to consent to better relationships with all the Usa.
In Latin America, the Nixon government continued the longstanding policy of supporting autocratic dictatorships in lieu of socialist democracies. Nixon qualified Chile’s access to international economic support, deterred private investment, increased support to the Chilean military and funneled secret payments to Allende opposition groups. In September 1973, Allende was overthrown in a military coup, creating Chilean army general Augusto Pinochet as dictator.
When Nixon made a televised address declaring the movement of U.S. troops into Cambodia to interrupt so called North Vietnamese refuges, young folks across the country erupted in demonstration, and student strikes briefly shut more than 500 universities, faculties and high schools.
Beyond most of the strife, the war in Vietnam had caused national inflation to develop to almost 6 percent by 1970. To address the issue, Nixon initially attempted to limit federal spending, but starting in 1971, his budget proposals checked shortages of several billion dollars, the biggest in American history up to that particular point. Though defense spending was cut virtually in half, government spending on benefits to American citizens increased from a little over 6 percent to nearly 9 percent. Food support and public support escalated from $6.6 billion to $9.1 billion. To restrain rising inflation and joblessness, Nixon visited temporary wage and price controls, which reached marginal success, but from the conclusion of 1972, inflation returned with a vengeance, achieving 8.8 percent in 1973 and 12.2 percent in 1974.
Nixon seemed invincible in his success. It appears strange, in hindsight, that his reelection campaign, the Committee to Reelect the President (also called CREEP) was so worried about Democrats resistance that it reverted to political sabotage and secret espionage. Public opinion polls throughout the campaign revealed President Nixon had an overwhelming lead. The entry of independent candidate George Wallace ensured some Democratic support will be taken from McGovern in the South, as well as for all the American people, Senator McGovern’s policies were simply too extreme.
White House officials denied the press’s reporting as one-sided and deceptive, but the FBI finally affirmed that Nixon assistance had tried to sabotage the Democrats through the election, and several stepped down in the surface of criminal prosecution.
A Senate committee under Senator Sam Ervin shortly started to hold hearings. Nixon continued to declare his innocence, though, repeatedly denying preceding understanding of the campaign sabotage and promising to have learned regarding the cover up in early 1973.
Nixon reacted straight to the country by staging an emotional televised press conference in November 1973, during which he famously declared, “I am not a criminal.” Maintaining executive privilege, Nixon still refused to release possibly damning content, including White House tape recordings that supposedly revealed aspects of CREEP’s strategies to sabotage political adversaries and interrupt the FBI’s investigation.
The House Judiciary Committee, controlled by Democrats, started impeachment hearings against the president in May 1974. In July, the Supreme Court refused Nixon’s claim of executive privilege and ruled that all tape recordings should be published to the special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski. Once the records were released, it did not take long for Nixon’s house of cards to teeter: One of the secret records supported the claims of the coverup, suggesting that Nixon was looped in from the start.
Upon the threat of a likely post-impeachment conviction, Richard Nixon stepped down in the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974.
Slowly Pat regrouped, and by 1977 he started forming a public relations come back. In August, Nixon met with British commentator David Frost to get a number of interviews during which Nixon sent mixed messages of contrition and pride, while never acknowledging any wrongdoing. While the interviews were met with mixed reviews, they were viewed by many and absolutely led to Nixon’s public image.
In 1978, Nixon released RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon, an intensely private assessment of his life, public profession and White House years; the novel became a bestseller. HenryKissinger , also authored several publications on international affairs and American foreign policy, modestly rehabilitating his public standing and earning him a job as an older foreign policy specialist.
Nixon took the loss hard, as well as on April 22, 1994, only 10 months after his own wife’s passing, Richard Nixon died of a massive stroke in nyc. President Bill Clinton was joined by four former presidents to pay court to the 37th president. His body lay in repose in the Nixon Library foyer, and an estimated 50,000 individuals waited in a significant rain for as many as 18 hours to file past the coffin and pay their last respects. HenryKissinger , was buried beside his own wife at his birthplace, in Yorba Linda, California.