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Philip II of Macedon Biography

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Produced in either 383 or 382 B.C., Philip II became Macedonia’s leader in 359, and was formally its king by 357. He used proficient military and diplomatic strategies to enlarge his nation’s land and influence, and ended up controlling virtually of all his nearby Greek city states. This time was well-spent, as it had been in Thebes that Philip learned about military strategy in the task of Epaminondas, among the best generals of the day. When Perdiccas was killed in 359 while fighting the Illyrians, Philip was chosen to serve as the protector for Perdiccas’s youthful son, Amyntas IV.

From his new place of power, Philip started to use his military genius so that you can remake the Macedonian army. This initiation meant that Philip’s military’s phalanxes could make the first strike, which transformed them into a lethal force. In 358, his new military successfully invaded first Paeonia and then Illyria, regaining land that Macedonia had ceded.

A superb military tactician, Philip was also adept at consolidating power through other means. Macedonians were polygamous, so wedding the female relatives of strong adversaries and allies was a natural measure for Philip (his seven wives contained Molossian princess Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great). By 357, Philip was no longer acting as his nephew’s regent and was formally Macedonia’s king.

During the following two decades, Philip would reach some successes in the area, just suffering a significant defeat in 353. His competent use of changing alliances, along together with his military supremacy, granted him land and influence that raised Macedonia’s riches, protection and unity.

At Chaeronea in 338, Philip’s army fought against a big collection of Greek forces. Utilizing a feigned retreat that created openings for his cavalry, Philip won a great triumph on the Greeks. In effect, he could form the League of Corinth in 337, which brought nearly all of the Greek city states into an alliance that was beholden to Philip.

After years of military campaigns, Philip was blind in a single eye from being shot via an arrow and walked using a limp thanks to some crushing injury to his leg. In spite of the strikes, he still dreamed of reaching Persia and its own wealth. He got the League of Corinth to sanction this invasion and started to get ready for the coming campaign. Philip was about 46 when he died.

The motives behind Pausanias’s activities remain uncertain. He might have been acting on his own—supposedly Philip’s ally Attalus organized for Pausanias’s sexual assault, and Pausanias was worried that Philip wouldn’t help avenge him. Nevertheless, Pausanias could have been acting for someone else—maybe Olympias, who felt supplanted by Philip’s latest union, or Alexander, who may have stressed that his succession was in danger. The Persian king was another chance, as he might have wished to avert Philip’s invasion.

While it’s impossible to be aware of the precise reason behind the assassination, Philip’s heritage is a lot clearer. When Alexander stepped in to direct Macedonia, he was the head of a state that has been powerful and coordinated, using the most capable military force in the area. While Alexander’s achievements are remarkable, none would have been possible with no heritage that Philip left behind.

Philip II of Macedon Biography

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