Muammar al-Qaddafi – Mini Biography (TV14; 3:30) Muammar al-Qaddafi climbed through the ranks of the military and assumed control of Libya in 1969. He presented bizarre behaviour and an oppressive opinion fashion until he was overthrown and killed in a revolution.
He joined the military and staged a coup to assume control of Libya in 1969, ousting King Idris. Though his Arab nationalist rhetoric and socialist-style policies acquired him support in the first days of his rule, his corruption, military intervention in Africa, and record of terrible human rights abuses turned much of the Libyan people against him. Accused of supporting terrorism, in the past decade of his rule Qaddafi achieved a rapprochement with Western leaders, and Libya became a key supplier of petroleum to Europe. During the “Arab Spring” of 2011, NATO troops supported dissidents trying to overthrow Qaddafi’s authorities. During the time of his arrival, Libya was an Italian colony. In 1951, Libya gained independence beneath the Western-allied King Idris. As a young man Qaddafi was determined by the Arab nationalist movement, and respected Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser. In 1961 Qaddafi entered the military school in the town of Benghazi. He also spent four months receiving military training in the UK.
After graduating, Qaddafi steadily climbed through the ranks of the military. As disaffection with Idris grew, Qaddafi became involved using a movement of young officers to overthrow the king. A gifted and charismatic guy, Qaddafi climbed to power in the group. At age 27, he’d become the ruler of Libya. He also demanded that foreign oil companies in Libya share a larger piece of sales together with the state. Qaddafi replaced the Gregorian calendar using the Islamic one, and prohibited the sale of booze.
Feeling threatened with a failed coup attempt by his fellow officers in December 1969, Qaddafi set in laws criminalizing political dissent. In 1970, he expelled the remaining Italians from Libya and highlighted what he saw as the conflict between Arab nationalism and Western imperialism. Qaddafi’s inner circle of trusted individuals became smaller and smaller, as power was shared by himself and a little number of associates. He involved the Libyan military in a number of foreign battles, including in Egypt and Sudan, and the bloody civil war in Chad.
In the mid-1970s, Qaddafi released the initial volume of theGreen Novel, an explanation of his political doctrine. The three-volume work describes the issues with liberal democracy and capitalism, and encourages Qaddafi’s policies as the treatment. Qaddafi asserted that Libya boasted popular committees and common possession, but in reality this was far from accurate. Qaddafi had made himself or close family and friends to any or all positions of power, as well as their corruption and crack downs on almost any civic arranging meant much of the people lived in poverty. Meanwhile, Qaddafi and those close to him were amassing fortunes in petroleum sales while the regime killed those it deemed as dissidents.
Qaddafi’s ruling style wasn’t only oppressive, it was weird. Along with his damaging rule in the home, Qaddafi was despised by much of the international community. His government was implicated in the funding of several anti-Western groups all over the world, including some terror schemes. The Irish Republican Army supposedly had connections to Qaddafi. Due to the regime’s connections to Irish terrorism, the United Kingdom cut off diplomatic relations with Libya for over a decade.
In 1986, Libyan terrorists were believed to be behind the bombing of a West Berlin dance club that killed three and injured dozens of men and women. The U.S. in turn, under President Ronald Reagan’s government, blasted certain targets in Libya that contained Qaddafi’s residence in Tripoli. In the most well-known example of the nation’s link to terrorism, Libya was implicated in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing.
In 1990s, the relationship between Qaddafi as well as the West started to thaw. As Qaddafi confronted an increasing threat from Islamists who opposed his rule, he started to discuss info using the British and American intelligence services. In 1994, Nelson Mandela got the Libyan leader to deliver the defendants in the Lockerbie bombing. It was not long before Qaddafi had mended relationships with the West on many fronts. Qaddafi’s son and heir apparent, Seif al-Islam Qaddafi, combined with London’s high society for a number of years. Many critics of the newfound camaraderie of Qaddafi as well as the West considered it was based on company and access to petroleum.
In 2001, the United Nations eased sanctions on Libya, and foreign oil companies worked out money-making new contracts to run in the united states. The inflow of cash to Libya made Qaddafi, his family and his associates even more loaded. The difference involving the ruling family as well as the masses became ever more obvious. After over four decades in power, Qaddafi’s downfall occurred in under a year. Another month, Egyptian ruler Hosni Mubarak was forced out, providing a morale boost to protesters in a number of Arab capitals. In spite of the setting of intense repression, protests broke out in the town of Benghazi and spread throughout Libya.
Qaddafi used competitive force to attempt to curb the demonstrations, as well as the violence quickly escalated. Authorities and foreign mercenaries were brought into shoot at protesters, and choppers were sent to bombard citizens in the air. As casualties mounted, Libyans developed more motivated to see Qaddafi’s ouster. As violence spread via the united states, Qaddafi made several rambling addresses on state television, maintaining the demonstrators were traitors, foreigners, al Qaeda and drug addicts. He encouraged his supporters to carry on the fight, and little groups of heavily armed loyalists fought against the rebels.
From the end of February 2011, the resistance had gained control over much of the united states, as well as the rebels formed a governing body called the National Transitional Council. The resistance besieged Tripoli, where Qaddafi still had some support. By the end of March, a NATO coalition started to offer support for the rebel forces in the type of airstrikes as well as a no-fly zone. NATO’s military intervention during another six months proved to be crucial. In April, a NATO strike killed one of Qaddafi’s sons. When Tripoli fell to rebel forces in late August, it was considered an important triumph for the resistance as well as a representational ending for Qaddafi’s rule. In July, more than 30 nations acknowledged the NTC as the legitimate authorities of Libya.
On October 20, 2011, Libyan officials declared that Muammar al-Qaddafi had perished near his hometown of Sirte, Libya. Early reports had contradictory accounts of his departure, with a few saying that he was killed in a gun battle and others asserting that he’d been targeted by a NATO airborne assault. Video circulated of Qaddafi’s bloodied body being dragged around by combatants.
For months, Qaddafi and his family was at large, believed to be hiding in the western portion of the united states where they still had little pockets of support. As news of the previous dictator’s death spread, Libyans poured to the streets, observing the what many hailed as the culmination of the revolution. Place Qaddafi, Libya has continued to be embroiled in violence. Tons of political figures and activists in Benghazi happen to be killed, with many having to depart the region. The state has also seen a series of interim prime ministers.