In 1740 she succeeded to the Habsburg throne. In opposition, Frederick II’s military invaded and maintained Silesia. The war ended in 1748, after which she reformed her authorities and military. In 1765 she named her son her co-regent. She died November 29, 1780, in Vienna, Austria.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI and his wife, Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbttel, welcomed their very first daughter, Maria Theresa, in the planet on May 13, 1717. In 1713 he issued the Pragmatic Sanction to make sure his oldest daughter’s right to assume the throne when he expired, provided he never had a son.
Maria Theresa’s schooling and breeding were typical of a princess’s in the time. Her studies focused on frivolous abilities believed befitting a young noblewoman. In spite of the reality that Maria Theresa, who really still failed to get a brother, was increasingly prone to inherit the Habsburg throne, she was sick-acquainted with matters of state.
Charles VI had been motivated by his trusted advisor, Prince Eugene of Savoy, to wed Maria Theresa away to some strong prince. Instead, Charles VI permitted his daughter to wed for love. In 1736 Maria Theresa and her precious Duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, France, were wed. Since Lorraine could possibly be incorporated in the Habsburg Empire, Duke Francis appeased France by conceding to trade his state for Tuscany, which was of significantly lesser worth.
Within the span of her union, Maria Theresa would give birth to some substantial brood. Her 16 kids consisted of 5 sons and 11 daughters, for example, future queen of France, Marie Antoinette. In October of 1740, Charles VI died. But Maria Theresa instantly faced opposition to her series from European powers who’d formerly consented to her dad’s Pragmatic Sanction.
By December of this year, Frederick II’s military invaded Silesia, an Austrian state, and claimed it for his kingdom. Bavaria and France followed suit using their particular invasion of Habsburg lands, causing an eight-year battle dubbed the War of the Austrian Succession. The war ended in 1748 when Austria was made to let Prussia keep Silesia and also to take the loss in three of its own Italian lands to France.
Throughout the War of the Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa had never found an acceptable general. She additionally to fought to locate competent guys to align themselves with the Habsburg Empire, together with the exception of a couple of administrators she’d managed to make.
After the war had finished, Maria Theresa set about further reforming the Habsburg authorities, with Silesian exile Count Frederick William Haugwitz heading up the attempt. Haugwitz’s reform effort focused primarily on centralization of the empire’s power. He delegated Bohemia and Austria into a combined ministry, and took power from the Provincial Estates. Because of this, the affected lands given Austria’s diminished army significantly more military power. Austria additionally gained from your riches created by those states’ businesses.
Maria Theresa additionally let Haugwitz to do away with annual resource discussions with all the empire’s estates in favor of assembly to negotiate just once a decade. Within the course of the decade, the estates would pay the central government annual taxes. Also, Maria Theresa reorganized several government functions, uniting them in a focused General Directory. The increased revenue and cost economies of Maria Theresa and Haugwitz’s national reforms further served to reinforce the Habsburg Empire’s military.
His strike culminated in the Seven Years War, during which Maria Theresa attempted to recover Silesia. In 1762, when Empress Elisabeth expired, Russia, among Austria’s greatest allies in the war, pulled away. Because it was clear the Habsburg Dynasty could not win the war without its allies, in 1763 Maria Theresa and Fredrick II consented to a peace treaty on the state that Prussia would get to keep Silesia.
In 1765 Maria Theresa’s husband, Francis Stephen, expired. Upon his departure, Maria Theresa made her oldest son, Joseph II, as emperor and co-regent. The two often battled in their own beliefs. After contemplating her very own abdication and finally rejecting the notion, Maria Theresa permitted Joseph to assume control of military reforms and join Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, in determining the empire’s foreign policy.
Although Maria Theresa craved peace and encouraged diplomacy, through the mom and son’s co-regency the War of the Bavarian Succession broke out, continuing from 1778 to 1779. With her passing, Joseph II assumed total responsibility as Holy Roman Emperor.