Margaret Sanger –
Margaret Sanger was born on September 14, 1879, in Corning, Ny. In 1910 she moved to Greenwich Village and began a publication boosting a female ‘s right to birth control (a term that she coined). Obscenity laws compelled her to flee the united states until 1915. In 1916 she started the very first birth control clinic in the U.S. Sanger fought for women’s rights her whole life.
Created Margaret Higgins on September 14, 1879, in Corning, Ny. She was one of 11 children born into a Roman Catholic working class Irish American family. Her mom, Anne, had several miscarriages, and Margaret considered that all the pregnancies took a toll on her mom’s well-being and led to her early death in the age of 40 (some reports say 50). The family lived in poverty as her dad, Michael, an Irish stonemason, favored to drink and discuss politics than bring in a steady wage. She went to study nursing at White Plains Hospital four years after. The couple eventually had three kids together.
In 1910, the Sangers moved to Nyc, settling in the Manhattan neighborhood of Greenwich Village. The place proved to be a bohemian enclave famous because of its extreme politics at that time, as well as the couple became immersed in that world. Sanger joined the Women’s Committee of the New York Socialist Party as well as the Liberal Club.
She also worked as a nurse to the Lower East Side, in the time a mostly poor immigrant area. Through her work, Sanger treated several girls who’d experienced back alley abortions or attempted to self-terminate their pregnancies. Sanger objected to the unnecessary suffering suffered by these girls, and she struggled to make birth control information and contraceptives accessible. She also started dreaming of a “magic pill” to be utilized to restrain pregnancy.
In 1914, Sanger began a feminist publication known as The Woman Rebel, which encouraged a girl’s right to have birth control. The monthly magazine got her in trouble, as it had been prohibited to send out info on contraception through the email. The Comstock Act of 1873 forbad the commerce in and circulation of “obscene and wrong contents.” Championed by Anthony Comstock, the act contained publications, devices, and drugs associated with contraception and abortion in its definition of obscene materials. Additionally, it made sending and importing anything related to these issues a offense.
Rather than face a potential five-year jail term, Sanger fled to England. While there, she worked in the women’s movement and studied other types of birth control, including diaphragms, which she afterwards smuggled back to the USA. She’d split from her husband at this time, as well as the two after divorced. Adopting the concept of free love, Sanger had matters with shrink Havelock Ellis and writer H. G. Wells.
Sanger returned to America in October 1915, after charges against her had been dropped. She started touring to market birth control, a term that she coined. In 1916, she started the very first birth control clinic in America. Sanger and her staff, including her sister Ethel, were detained over the course of a raid of the Brooklyn practice nine days after it opened. They were charged with supplying advice on contraception and fitting girls for diaphragms. After appealing her conviction, she scored a triumph for the birth control movement. Around now, Sanger also printed her first issue of The Birth Control Review.
In 1921, Sanger created the American Birth Control League, a precursor to the current Planned Parenthood Federation of America. In 1923, while with the league, she started the very first legal birth control practice in America. The practice was named the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau. He supplied a lot of the funds for her efforts for societal reform. Needing to improve her cause through legal routes, Sanger began the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control in 1929. The committee sought to allow it to be legal for physicians to freely distribute birth control.
For all her advocacy work, Sanger wasn’t without controversy. She’s been criticized for her organization with eugenics, a department of science that attempts to enhance the human species through selective mating. As grandson Alexander Sanger, chair of the International Planned Parenthood Council, explained, “She considered that girls needed their children to be free of poverty and disorder, that girls were natural eugenicists, which birth control, which may restrict how many kids and enhance their standard of living, was the panacea to do this.” Still Sanger held some views that have been common at that time, but now look abhorrent, including support of sterilization for the mentally ill and emotionally afflicted. Despite her contentious opinions, Sanger concentrated her work on a single basic principle: “Every kid ought to be a wanted child.”
Sanger stepped from the limelight to get a period, deciding to reside in Tucson, Arizona. Her retirement didn’t last long, yet. She worked on the birth control problem in other states in Europe and Asia, and she created the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1952. Still seeking a “magic pill,” Sanger recruited Gregory Pincus, a human reproduction specialist, to focus on the issue in the early 1950s. She found the essential financial support for the job from Katharine McCormick, the International Harvester heiress. This research project would give the initial oral contraceptive, Enovid, that has been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration in 1960.
Sanger lived to find another significant reproductive rights landmark in 1965, when the Supreme Court made birth control legal for married couples in its judgement on Griswold v. Connecticut. Across the country, there are many women’s health practices that carry the Sanger name in remembrance of her attempts to improve women’s rights and the birth control movement.