Louis XVIII was born in the Palace of Versailles in France on November 17, 1755. His reign marked the initial experiment with constitutional monarchy in France. He stayed on the throne until his death in Paris on September 16, 1824. During the time of his arrival, Louis received the title of Count of Provence. He became the heir to the throne in 1774, after the accession of among his three older brothers as well as the departures of the remaining two. His closeness to the throne raised substantially, yet, using the arrival of two sons to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.
Louis stayed in Paris in the beginning of the 1789 Revolution, but fled France three years after. He spent the balance of the war actively participating from a secure space, issuing manifestos and seeking the support of other monarchs. His activities did little to secure the captive king and queen, who have been executed in 1793. Unable to officially claim the throne, Louis traveled throughout Europe for the next 20 years. He met with other monarchs often, in a attempt to keep up his legitimacy as the heir to the French throne also to encourage opposition to Napoleon. When Napoleon offered him a pension in return because of his abdication, Louis refused.
After Napoleon’s military defeats in 1813, Louis issued a statement assuring to keep a few of the Ground-Breaking reforms in the context of a restored Bourbon regime. On May 3, 1814, bunches welcomed Louis back to Paris. The newest king rapidly went to institutionalize the constitutional monarchy he’d sworn. The newest constitution, referred to as the Charte Constitutionnelle, ensured a bicameral parliament along with religious toleration. The constitutional experiments were cut short by the entrance of Napoleon from exile in Elba. To be able to reign calmly, Louis XVIII needed to balance the energy of the monarchy with all the demands of the post-Revolutionary people. While Louis used executive ability, his power was checked by the parliament, which voted on laws and authorized budgets. Among his biggest challenges was keeping control of the “ultras,” a royalist faction inside the parliament that sought to repeal all the Ground-Breaking reforms. The activities of the ultras led Louis to dissolve parliament at one point, rather than let the constitutional legality of the legislature to be sabotaged. Louis stayed on the throne until his death in Paris on September 16, 1824.