Louis XVI – Sources of the French Revolution (TV14; 3:38) Learn about the sources and results of the French Revolution. Louis XVI became the heir to the throne along with the final Bourbon king of France upon his dad’s death in 1765. In 1770, he wed Austrian archduchess Marie Antoinette, the daughter of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. Following a slew of ruling missteps, Louis XVI brought the French Revolution crashing down upon himself, as well as in 1793 he was executed. His wife, Marie Antoinette, was executed nine months later. His mom, Marie-Josephe of Saxony, was the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, additionally the King of Poland.
Louis Auguste grew up strong and healthy, though really timid. Louis was tutored by French noblemen and studied faith, morality, and humanities. Louis shone in Latin, history, geography, and astronomy and attained fluency in Italian and English. With LouisAuguste health, he loved physical tasks for example hunting and wrestling and from a young age he loved locksmithing, which became a lifelong avocation.
Subsequently, on December 20, 1765, his dad died of tuberculosis, and Louis Auguste became Dauphin at age 11. His mom never recovered in the family disasters as well as succumbed to tuberculosis on March 13, 1767. Louis Auguste was ill prepared for the throne he was shortly to inherit. Following the passing of his parents, Louis’s coaches supplied him with poor social abilities. Louis’s parents exacerbated his shyness by teaching him that austerity was a indication of a powerful character in monarchs. Because of this, he presented himself as being quite indecisive.
The initial couple of years of wedding for Louis and Marie were amicable but distant. His shyness kept him distant from her in private and his anxiety of the daughter of MariaTheresa exploitation made him chilly to her in public. It’s considered the couple failed to consummate their marriage for a while, having their first child eight years after their wedding. Historians debate the cause, but most likely, Louis endured from a physiological dysfunction that took time to rectify. Eventually, the couple had four kids, all of whom but one died in youth.
On May 10, 1774, Louis Auguste became Louis XVI, using the passing of his grandfather Louis XV. Just 20 years old at that time, Louis XVI was immature and lacked self confidence. Marie-Antoinette wished to be a great king and help his issues, however he confronted tremendous debt and growing animosity towards a despotic monarchy. His failure to successfully address serious financial issues would dog him for the majority of his reign. Louis lacked adequate strength of character and decisiveness to fight the impact of court factions or give support to reformers in their own attempts to enhance France’s government.
In the first years of his reign, Louis XVI focused on spiritual uniformity and foreign policy. On the homefront, he invoked an edict that allowed French non-Catholics legal status as well as the right to openly practice their religion. But the policy of taking out international loans rather than increasing taxes raised the debt and drove the state to close insolvency by the mid-1780s. This compelled the king to support revolutionary financial reforms not favorable with all the aristocrats or the individuals.
When the pressure built, Louis XVI reverted to his earlier teaching of being austere and uncommunicative, presenting no way to solve the issue, rather than reacting to others who offered help. His failure to address France’s issues set in motion the Revolution that will eventually descend upon him. Marie-Antoinette made matters worse by frequently escaping to more pleasurable activities like hunting and locksmithing. Modern historians credit this behaviour into a clinical depression that left the last Bourbon king to paralyzing indecisiveness.
By 1789, the position was deteriorating fast. The assembly didn’t go well. By June, the Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly, aligned together with the bourgeoisie, and set out to create a constitution. Initially, Louis XVI resisted, declared the Assembly null and void, and called out the military to bring back order. Public dissention grew and a National Guard formed to resist the King’s activities. By July 1789, the King was made to admit the National Assembly’s power.
To get a time, it appeared that Louis XVI could mollify the masses saying he’d acquiesce to their own demands. Nevertheless, the last Bourbon king accepted poor guidance in the nobility’s hard line conservatives and his wife, Marie Antoinette. Louis XVI spoke of reform but resisted demands for this. Louis disregarded guidance from advisers and refused to abdicate his duties, and after that consented to some fatal effort to escape to the eastern frontier in June 1791.
In the last couple of years of his reign, events proceeded quickly. War broke out in April 1792. Feelings of treason resulted in the capture of the royal palace as well as the temporary suspension of the king’s powers. On September 21, 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed the very first French Republic. That November, evidence of Louis XVI’s secret deals and counterrevolutionary intrigues was found, and he and his family were charged with treason. Louis was shortly found guilty by the National Assembly and condemned to death. His wife, Marie Antoinette, met the exact same destiny nine months later, on October 16, 1793.