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James Madison Biography

Full nameCharles Aronstein
Know asJames Madison, Madison, James
Birth placeSan Francisco, California, USA
Birth date1751-03-16
Lived85 years, 3 month, 12 days
WorkArticles related to James Madison
SpouseDolley Madison
ChildrenJohn, John Payne Todd

Charles Aronstein sources


Charles Aronstein Biography:

James Madison  Among America’s Founding Fathers, James Madison helped construct the U.S. Constitution in the late 1700s. Produced in 1751, Madison grew up in Orange County, Virginia. His dad, James, was a successful planter and possessed more than 3,000 acres of property and dozens of slaves. He was likewise an influential figure in county matters.

He returned to his dad’s estate in Orange County, Virginia called Montpelier five years after. His dad had him stay home and get private tutoring because he was concerned about Madison’s well-being. He’d experience bouts of ill health throughout his life. After a couple of years, Madison eventually went to school in 1769, registering in the College of New Jersey now known as Princeton University. There, Madison studied Latin, Greek, science and philosophy among other areas. Graduating in 1771, he remained on a while more time to continue his studies using the school’s president, Reverend John Witherspoon. Returning to Virginia in 1772, Madison shortly found himself caught up in the tensions between the colonists and also the British authorities. Writing to school buddy William Bradford, Madison sensed that “There’s something at hand that shall substantially augment the annals of the planet.”

The learned Madison was more of a writer than the usual combatant, however. And he set his abilities to great use in 1776 at the Virginia Convention, as Orange County’s representative. Around that point, he met Thomas Jefferson, as well as the pair soon started what would turn into a lifelong friendship. When Madison received an appointment to serve on the committee responsible for composing Virginia’s constitution, he worked with George Mason to the draft. Among his special contributions was reworking some of the language about spiritual liberty.

In 1777, Madison lost his bid to get a seat in the Virginia Assembly, however he was afterwards named to the Governor’s Council. He was a powerful supporter of the American-French coalition through the revolution, and only managed a lot of the council’s correspondence with France. In 1780, he went to Philadelphia to serve as among Virginia’s delegates to Continental Congress. In 1783, Madison returned to Virginia as well as the state legislature. The next year, Madison handled an much more challenging authorities writing the U.S. Constitution.

In 1787, Madison represented Virginia in the Constitution Convention. He was a federalist at heart, so campaigned to get a powerful central government. In the Virginia Plan, he expressed his thoughts about forming a three-part federal government, comprising executive, legislative and judicial branches. He believed it was significant because of this new construction to really have a system of checks and balances, so that you can avoid the misuse of power by any one group.

While a number of Madison’s thoughts were contained in the Constitution, the file itself faced some resistance in his native Virginia as well as other colonies. Then he joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in a particular attempt to get the Constitution ratified, as well as the three guys composed a set of powerful letters that have been printed in New York newspapers, together called The Federalist documents. In Virginia, Madison managed to outmaneuver such Constitution adversaries as Patrick Henry to procure the document’s ratification. He became an instrumental force supporting the Bill of Rights, submitting his recommended changes to the Constitution to Congress in June 1789. A modified version of his proposition was embraced that September, following much discussion.

While initially a supporter of President George Washington and his government, Madison shortly found himself at odds with Washington over fiscal problems. He objected to the policies of Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton, considering these strategies lined the pockets of rich northerners, and was harmful to others. He and Jefferson campaigned from the introduction of a fundamental national bank, calling it unconstitutional. However, the measure was passed by 1791. Around now, the longtime pals left the Federalist Party and created their political thing, the Democratic-Republican Party.

Eventually tiring of the political conflicts, Madison returned to Virginia in 1797 along with his wife Dolley. (Madison would formally inherit the estate after his dad’s death in 1801.) But Madison did not stay out of government for long. In 1801, Madison joined the management of his longtime buddy, Thomas Jefferson, serving as President Jefferson’s secretary of state. He supported Jefferson’s efforts in expanding the country’s boundaries with the Louisiana Purchase, as well as the quests of the brand new lands by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.

Among Madison’s biggest challenges played out on the high seas, with U.S. boats coming under attack. Great Britain and France were at war again, and American boats were captured at the center. Warships from both sides regularly stopped and captured American ships to stop Americans from trading with all the enemy. As well as the American crewmembers were driven into service for all these feuding foreign powers. After diplomatic efforts failed, Madison campaigned for the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited American boats from traveling to foreign ports and stopped exports from America. Extremely unpopular, this measure proved to be an economic disaster for American retailers. Running on the Democratic-Republican ticket, Madison won the 1808 presidential election with a large margin. He conquered Federalist Charles C. Pinckney and Independent Republican George Clinton, procuring almost 70 percent of the electoral votes. It was a remarkable success, considering the lousy public opinion of the Embargo Act of 1807.

One challenge of Madison’s first period was growing tensions involving America and Great Britain. There had already been problems involving both nations on the seizure of American ships and crews. The Embargo Act was repealed in 1809, and a fresh act reduced the trade embargo down to two nations: Great Britain and France. This new law, called the Non-Intercourse Act, did nothing to enhance the problem. American retailers disregarded the act and traded with one of these countries anyhow. Because of this, American boats and crews were still fed upon.

In Congress, several outspoken politicians began to call to get a war from the British. These guys, occasionally called “War Hawks,” comprised Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of South Carolina. While Madison stressed the country could not effectively fight a war with Great Britain, he comprehended that many American citizens wouldn’t stand for these ongoing assaults on American boats considerably more.

America declared war on Britain in June of 1812. While his own party supported this move, Madison faced resistance in the Federalists, who nicknamed the battle “Mr. Madison’s War.” In the first days of the war, it was clear the U.S. Navy was outmatched by British forces. Madison still was able to win the presidential election several months after, beating out New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton.

The War of 1812, as it’s now understood, dragged on into Madison’s second term. As they made their way to Washington, Madison and his authorities needed to flee the capital. The White House as well as the Capitol building were among the constructions ruined. The next month, U.S. troops were able to discontinue another British invasion in the North. And Andrew Jackson, though his soldiers were outnumbered, reached an impressive victory on the British in the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Both sides agreed to terminate the battle after that year, together with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.

Madison kept himself busy by running the plantation and serving on a particular board to make the University of Virginia, together with assistance from Thomas Jefferson. The school started in 1825, with Jefferson as its rector. The next year, after Jefferson’s death, Madison assumed direction of the university. This organization directed to return freed slaves to Africa.

After his departure, his 1834 message, “Advice to My Country,” was released. He’d expressly requested the note not be made public until after his passing. Regarded as a modest, quiet intellectual, Madison used the depth and breadth of his knowledge to develop a brand new form of authorities. His notions and notions shaped a country, and created the rights that Americans still love now.

James Madison Biography

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