Produced on January 1, 1895, in Washington, D.C., J. Edgar Hoover was the longtime manager of the FBI (1924 1972) and spent much of his livelihood collecting intelligence on extreme groups and people and “subversives,” Martin Luther King Jr. being one of his favourite goals.
Manager of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, attorney, and criminologist. Hoover attended night courses at George Washington University while employed as a clerk in the Library of Congress.
In this place, he was given the responsibility of heading a fresh area of the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation known as the General Intelligence Division. The G.I.D. was created to collect intelligence on extreme groups, and was responsible for arranging the arrest or deportation of alleged seditionists. This resulted in the contentious “Palmer Raids,” in which Hoover and his associates detained and deported leftwing radicals, particularly anarchists, from America.
In 1919, Hoover targeted Pan-African leader Marcus Garvey, naming him a “infamous negro agitator,” and started hunting for any evidence that might enable Garvey to be charged using a crime. In December of 1919, fearful of Garvey’s growing influence, Hoover hired the very first black representative in the Bureau’s history: James Wormley Jones. Jones was sent to collect intelligence on Garvey, as well as the resultant advice led Hoover and his group to sabotage Garvey’s Black Star Line, some boats meant to transport goods involving the black communities of North America, the Carribbean and Africa. Because of this, Garvey’s Black Star service went broke, along with the leader started entertaining ideas of self harm.
Improving from helper in 1921 to manager of the Bureau of Investigation in 1924, Hoover stressed modern technological fact-finding techniques, enhanced training, and got raised funding from Congress for the business. During the 1930s, F.B.I. exploits against infamous gangsters, especially John Dillinger, made Hoover a national hero. A chain of high profile gang arrests by the Bureau resulted in an expansion of power for the organization, as well as the Bureau became the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935.
In 1956, frustrated the Justice Department had not been allowed to prosecute and deport individuals for his or her political views, Hoover created the Counter Intelligence Program, or COINTELPRO. The group ran some secret, & most generally prohibited, aimed in the dissolution and discrediting of extreme political organizations. Beneath the COINTELPRO label, Hoover tried to disband any organizations that have been considered subversive, for instance, Black Panthers, the Socialist Workers Party along with the Ku Klux Klan.
Having an illegal wiretap, Hoover was convinced he’d evidence of King’s infidelitous conduct, and tried to drive reporters into publicizing the record. The media refused. Rather, Hoover sent the tape immediately to King’s office, suggesting he commit suicide or face exposure.
COINTELPRO and its own approaches remained a secret until it was disclosed to the general public in 1971. Its exposure resulted in a number of the severest criticism of Hoover as well as the FBI. Reports disclosed that COINTELPRO’s procedures contained infiltration, burglaries, illegal wiretaps, planted evidence, and untrue rumors. At its worst, some specialists say the group also organized the murders of specific defendants.
Hoover also kept strong support in Congress, perhaps as a result of intelligence he’d collected about individual politicians, and he continued manager under every president from Coolidge to Nixon until his departure, on May 2, 1972, in Washington, D.C. The FBI headquarters in Washington, D.C. were named after Hoover, but because of the contentious nature of his heritage, there have been several suggestions to rename it.