Alan Turing was born on June 23, 1912, in London. In his seminal 1936 paper, he demonstrated that there cannot exist any worldwide algorithmic approach to discovering truth in math, which math will always include undecidable propositions. That paper also introduced the “Turing machine. His papers on the area are broadly recognized as the basis of research in artificial intelligence.
In a young age, he displayed signs of high intellect, which a number of his teachers acknowledged, but didn’t always honor. When Turing attended the well known independent Sherborne School in the age of 13, he became especially enthusiastic about mathematics and science.
After Sherborne, Turing registered at King’s College (University of Cambridge) in Cambridge, England, studying there from 1931 to 1934. As an outcome of his dissertation, where he demonstrated the central limit theorem, Turing was elected a fellow in the institution upon his graduation.
Within another couple of years, Turing studied math and cryptology in the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
During the Second World War, Turing was a leading participant in wartime codebreaking, especially that of German ciphers. He worked at Bletchley Park, the GCCS wartime station, where he made five important progress in the area of cryptanalysis, including setting the bombe, an electromechanical device used to decipher German Enigma encrypted signs.
Turing moved to London in the mid-1940s, and started working for the National Physical Laboratory. Among his most noteworthy contributions while working in the facility, Turing directed the design work for the Automatic Computing Engine and ultimately created a groundbreaking pattern for shop-software computers. Though a whole variant of the ACE was never constructed, its theory continues to be used as a model by technology corporations world-wide for a number of years, affecting the style of the English Electric DEUCE as well as the American Bendix G15—credited by many in the technology sector as the world’s first personal computer—among other computer models.
Turing went to hold high ranking positions in the mathematics department and after the computing lab in the University of Manchester in the late 1940s. He first addressed the problem of artificial intelligence in his 1950 paper, “Computing machinery and intelligence,” and suggested an experiment called the “Turing Test”—an attempt to create an intellect design standard for the technology sector. In the last few decades, the evaluation has significantly affected arguments over artificial intelligence.
Homosexuality was illegal in the UK in the early 1950s, so when Turing confessed to authorities—who he called to his house after a break in—in January, 1952, that he’d had a sexual relationship with the perpetrator, 19-year old Arnold Murray, he was charged with gross indecency. Following his arrest, Turing was made to select between temporary probation on the status that he get hormonal treatment for libido decrease, or incarceration. He picked the former, and shortly experienced chemical castration through injections of a synthetic estrogen hormone to get a year, which finally left him impotent.
Turing expired on June 7, 1954. Following a postmortem examination, it had been discovered the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. The remains of an apple were discovered alongside the body, though no apple components were located in his belly. Touch odor of bitter almonds was also reported in vital organs. The autopsy concluded the cause of death was asphyxia as a result of cyanide poisoning and ruled a suicide.
In a June 2012 BBC post, philosophy professor and Turing specialist Jack Copeland claimed that Turing’s departure could have already been an injury: The apple was never analyzed for cyanide, nothing in the reports of Turing’s last days indicated he was suicidal and Turing had cyanide in his house for chemical experiments he ran in his extra room.
Soon after the Second World War, Alan Turing was granted an Order of the British Empire because of his work. In June 2007, a lifesize statue of Turing was unveiled at Bletchley Park, in Buckinghamshire, England. Moreover, the Princeton University Alumni Weekly named Turing the second most important alumnus in the annals of the school.
Turing was honored in numerous other methods, especially in the town of Manchester, where he worked toward the conclusion of his life. Turing was also ranked 21st on the BBC national survey of the “100 Greatest Britons” in 2002. By and large, Turing continues to be recognized for his impact on computer science, with many crediting him as the “creator” of the area.